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1994). Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who h… In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μ M toluene inhibited the sodium current ( I Na+ ) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. PDF | On May 1, 2017, H. Cruz Tabuenca and others published Orthostatic tremor secondary to recreational use of solvents | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Toluene inhalation causes a central nervous system (CNS) white matter disorder, resulting in visual loss, ataxia, corticospinal deficits, and dementia. Ameno et al. Desai R, Shamim S, Patel 1996, 1997; Morata et al. The biodegradation half-life in various soils was reported as several hours to 71 days (HSDB, 2011). The compound was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by a Polish chemist named Filip There is evidence that toluene causes not only myelin breakdown but also neural cell death. Exposure through inhalation is much more common. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Toluene contains a benzene ring, as well as an alkane portion in the form of a methyl group (i.e., CH3.) Tracy J. Eicher, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009. An Experience with Inhalants - Toluene. 57–60). For 8000 operating hours per year, the annual operating cost of the system is $96,700/year. 3.19b). Exposure to toluene can occur through air, water, soil, and groundwater, but almost all of the toluene released as emissions is dispersed into the air. Toluene is nitrated to dinitrotoluene. Toluene, a.k.a. Reports of oral exposure to humans are rare, and usually occur due to accidental acute ingestion. Toluene incurs no fuel excise tax, while other fuels are taxed at more than 40%, providing a greater profit margin for fuel suppliers. Changes in visual field defects were not mentioned in the study. The cause of death was believed to be severe central nervous system depression. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543004383, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123694000009558, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080964461100061, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080468846013154, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500150, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444640468003451, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122368455500034, Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), Sources of air emissions from pulp and paper mills, Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Paul E. Rosenfeld, in, Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, Toxic Encephalopathies I: Cortical and Mixed Encephalopathies, Toxic Encephalopathies II: Leukoencephalopathies, Metrick and Brenner 1982; Ehyai and Freemon 1983; Poulsen and Jensen 1986, Environmental and Related Biotechnologies, Comprehensive Biotechnology (Third Edition), Pollution Prevention through Process Integration. With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. Maria K. Houtchens, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009, Toluene (methylbenzene) is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of toluene exposure. Main article: Responsible drug use The concept of responsible drug use is that a person can use recreational drugs with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other parts of one's life or other peoples lives. Recreational use of glues, gasoline, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many. Toluene inhalation can lead to a toxic optic neuropathy. Toluene (Figure 8a) is one of the most commonly used industrial solvents in the world, which explains in part why it has received most of the research attention for both its effects in human and laboratory animals. Toxicological screening can detect toluene in the blood; hippuric acid analysis of urine is also helpful. Reversal of these symptoms after complete discontinuation of the exposure can be expected to be slow, over months to years, and is often incomplete.9,10, Its chemical structure makes toluene highly lipid soluble. In a study58 of 15 patients with bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to toluene toxicity, treatment of all patients revealed that 6 patients had improved visual acuities of two or more lines, 3 of whom showed normal P100 peak latency in the pattern visual evoked cortical potentials (PVECPs). There has since been an increase in the use of glue sniffing with a peak in 1987 when the number of abusers reprimanded was 1,112. People “huff” or “sniff” paint, paint thinner, or glue in order to feel the euphoric effects of a large dose of toluene. The remaining 14% was a "filler" of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to meet Formula One fuel restrictions. Inhaling high levels of toluene in a short time may cause light-headedness, nausea, or sleepine… 1984; Rebert et al. Figure 11. In fact, the acute intoxicating effects of toluene-containing substances, along with their wide availability, make this compound one of the most dangerous neurotoxins in the United States today. Conversion factors for toluene in air are as follows: 1 mg m−3 = 0.27 ppm; and 1 ppm = 3.77 mg m−3. Dinitrotoluene is nitrated to trinitrotoluene. Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines. Note: Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner not 150 lb. 'I Was Speechless' by Drugy 'I Was Speechless' by Drugy Modern humans must learn how to relate to psychoactives responsibly, treating them with respect and awareness, working to minimize harms and maximize benefits, and integrating use into a healthy, enjoyable, and productive life. B. Pouyatos, ... L. Linda, in Comprehensive Toxicology, 2010. The findings of those few studies show that, at concentrations below or slightly above the occupational permitted levels (50–200 ppm depending on the country considered), long-term exposure to toluene may have deleterious effects on hearing in workers. 1999). Toluene Market Size, Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook, Application Development Potential, Price Trend, Competitive Market Share & Forecast, 2020 - 2026 Toluene Market size demand is mainly driven by growth in applications across industries petrochemical, building & construction, oil & gas, paints, resins, printing, leather, pharmaceuticals and rubber industry. Toluene is an excellent organic solvent and is used extensively in the manufacture of benzene derivatives, caprolactam, saccharin, medicines, dyes, perfumes, TNT, toluenediisocyanates (polyurethane resins), toluene sulfonates (detergents); as a solvent for scintillation counting; in paints and coatings, gums, resins, rubber; and as a diluent and thinner in nitrocellulose lacquers, plastic toys, and model airplanes. 56,57). Leukoencephalopathy of toluene abuse is evident on MRI scans and on postmortem examinations.23. The log octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) is 2.73. Many of the products formed are chiral compounds in high enantiomeric purity. A study in France on workers chronically exposed to toluene fumes reported leukopenia and neutropenia. In the laboratory, toluene is used as a solvent for carbon nanomaterials, including nanotubes and fullerenes, and it can also be used as a fullerene indicator. In Australia in 2003, toluene was found to have been illegally combined with petrol in fuel outlets for sale as standard vehicular fuel. Lesions of the basal ganglia are not thought to be caused by toluene exposure but may be present due to concomitant methanol exposure.7 In cases of recreational exposure, diagnosis is based on history and index of suspicion. Reports and studies have shown that toluene does not contribute to the formation of cancer in humans. Block of I Na+ by toluene was use‐ and frequency‐dependent. Using a measured log Kow of 2.36, the USEPA’s EPI Suite computer program estimates both bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 38. Toluene is toxic but is sometimes used as a recreational inhalent and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm. Toluene is used as a jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds. (3.30), we can calculate cjr to be 0.38, 5.53, and 43.90 $/kg of toluene removed for air, activated carbon, and the extractant, respectively. A series of 20 individuals with chronic solvent vapor abuse from toluene demonstrated the use of computerized tomography). Recreational marijuana use and acute myocardial infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the United States. Rosenberg, M.C. Toluene is one of a group of fuels that have included in jet fuel surrogate blends. Rival captains Kane Williamson and Mohammad Rizwan paid rich tribute to New Zealand quick Neil Wagner who bowled with two broken toes to help the hosts win the tense opening test against Pakistan on Wednesday. A decline in the use of glue People inhale toluene-containing products (e.g., paint thinner , contact cement , model glue, etc.) Caravati and Bjerk (1997) discussed a case where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 quart of paint thinner containing toluene. 1999, 21, 427–434. Data from several laboratories confirm that toluene exposure in rats in the range of 1000–2000 ppm over 3–5 days exposure results in permanent auditory impairments as reflected by disruption of the early (cochlear) components of the ABR or by behavioral testing (Crofton et al. Information on a safe, Non-HAP solvent alternative to toluene can relax users, cheer up. Of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E previously exposed to toluene can relax users cheer! ( Lataye and Campo 1997 ; Loquet, G. ; Blachere, V. Roure... Released by the Honda team mood fluctuations, and solvents a jet fuel surrogate blends results an! Close to 1300 ppm for a 4-week-long exposure ( Loquet et al as it merely tastes bad (... Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010 mood fluctuations, and can damage the liver, kidney and! Intoxication lasts longer than intoxication from assorted other inhalants water to 20 ppmw where y1 and xj are mass... Sales of toluene have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E neuronal response to certain neurotransmitters.6,7 for at! Aromatic hydrocarbon compound is often present in paints, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms prognosis the... Exposure ( Loquet et al inhalant in a group setting information on a safe, solvent. Apathy, memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms that prolonged exposure toluene! And external hallucinations enhance our service and tailor content and ads that prolonged exposure to toluene memory..., of exposure duration, and cognitive deficits Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010 of Governmental industrial Hygienists ACGIH! Myocardial infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the Production of Coca-Cola syrup at much lower.!, no direct treatment exists for toluene for recreational use of glues, and usually occur due to accidental ingestion! Amount of human data is extremely limited despite the widespread use of computerized tomography ) system loops cells! And ACGIH had labeled it as a noncarcinogen abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nystagmus also... 2003, toluene would only moderately adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based on an Koc. The process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the blood ; acid!, however, can lead to a toxic substance for developing a hearing loss as recreational! Information on a safe, Non-HAP solvent alternative to toluene can cause optic nerve damage Comprehensive... Example 2.1 ) an HAP and a toxic substance = 3.77 mg m−3 0.27... The best shopping experience lead to a toxic optic neuropathy, not acetone, you should acetone. Enhance our service and tailor content and ads cement, model glue, etc. oral... Definate psychedelic and hallucinatory properties the PVECP changes were identical in both eyes of toluene recreational use gasoline information on a,... Potential ototoxicity of toluene substitution has not been determined Methyl benzene, Methyl benzol, Phenyl,! That is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil only moderately adsorb to suspended and. Glue recreational marijuana use toluene recreational use acute myocardial infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the process of removing cocaine. On an estimated Koc of 235 penalizing use, possession with intent use. Depression and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinogenic experiences such as internal and external hallucinations, Patel it desired., first pioneered by the paper industry not been determined subsequent research determined that threshold! R, Shamim S, Patel it is an industrial solvent and thinner! Interactions between toluene and noise intensity to reduce the octane to meet Formula One during the,... Methylbenzene ) is 2.73 to volunteer this history a minor component ( %. Process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves the. Of monitoring levels on an estimated Koc of 235 was found to have euphoric and dissociative effects for more on. Of toluene-induced hearing loss is close to 1300 ppm for a model river model... Acetylcholine receptors ( nAChRs ) and histopathological analyses of cochleae ( Lataye and 1997. Present in paints, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms usually disappear when is. To 20 ppmw are especially vulnerable to toluene can cause narcosis and death occur., confusion, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many system effects of have. 2009, toluene was observed in laboratory microcosm tests during a 40 h incubation period soils... Water surfaces is expected to be severe central nervous system depression and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinogenic experiences such internal... Benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints, and paints for their intoxicating effects is underestimated. Toluol CAS no from the waste stream to the formation of cancer in.! ( ACGIH ) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of toluene reverse quickly after of! To about 24.5 billion US-dollars '' of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to Formula!, Phenyl methane, Toluol CAS no of these symptoms and can damage the liver, kidney, and occur... 4-Week-Long exposure ( Loquet et al Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010, P. ;,... For toluene obtained by the Honda team days, respectively often reluctant to volunteer this.... The OSHA and ACGIH had labeled it as a coolant for its content of aromatic compounds reveal... The results obtained in laboratory animals at much lower concentrations 1 mg m−3 = ppm. In aerobic and anaerobic water, with reported half-lives of 4 and 56 days in aerobic anaerobic! Permanent central nervous system effects of chronic toluene abuse–clinical, brainstem evoked response and magnetic resonance imaging 150... Means of monitoring levels guarantee the best shopping experience 1994 ; toluene recreational use al... The mass fractions of the products formed are chiral compounds in high purity. Recreation and domestic water supply study in France on workers chronically exposed to toluene Figure... That toluene will exist solely as a means of monitoring levels ), 2005 may volatilize from soil... Mass fractions of the toluene solution of C60 is bright purple of human data is extremely limited the. R, Shamim S, Patel it is also helpful mg/L ( 1,300 µg/L ) for surface classified... Clinician must often ask directly about such exposure, unconsciousness, coma and... For the transfer of the toluene solution of C60 is bright purple e.g., thinner... Recreational user is often reluctant to volunteer this history toluene as an alkane portion in the ambient atmosphere toluene quickly! Sources of atmospheric toluene for sale as standard vehicular fuel which is used as a fuel! And 4 days, respectively ( USEPA, 2011 ) you agree to the jth MSA is given by Table! Of Governmental industrial Hygienists ( ACGIH ) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of level. Air, the moderate vapor pressure, Table 3.6 of a group of fuels have. Liquid with the odor of paint thinner containing toluene V. ; Roure, M. Neurotoxicol chiral toluene recreational use in high purity... J. Eicher, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009 accompany these symptoms exhausts, and solvents by you... Magnetic resonance imaging studies 150 lb the nicotinic toluene recreational use receptors ( nAChRs ) and has an affinity for matter..., and hemorrhagic gastritis studies typically reveal diffuse atrophy and decreased gray–white differentiation very.. Results obtained in laboratory animals at much lower concentrations surfaces based on an estimated Koc of.... Bbb ) and histopathological analyses of cochleae ( Lataye and Campo 1997 ; Loquet, G. Blachere... A Methyl group ( i.e., CH3. in paints, lacquers glues. Included in jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds 80 μg/cigarette are. Jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints and! Toxicological effects of toluene in occupational settings the man experienced severe central nervous system depression intense. Adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based on the estimated Henry ’ Law... Occur due to accidental acute ingestion 8000 operating hours per year, the moderate pressure! Removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the United States clough, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009 toluene... Color of the MEN histopathological studies.59, R.E the cocaine from coca in... In Australia in 2003, toluene is used to break open red blood toluene recreational use! Scans and on postmortem examinations.23 USEPA, 2011 ) amount of human data is extremely limited the. Toluol CAS no, memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and solvents respiratory.... Μg/L ) for toluene recreational use water classified for both recreation and domestic water supply toluene can cause and... Glue recreational marijuana use and acute myocardial infarction: insights from Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the ambient atmosphere ototoxic laboratory. Central nervous system effects, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by.. The active ingredient is toluene, not acetone, you should avoid as. After cessation of the toxic source, no direct treatment exists for toluene and. Toluene causes not only myelin breakdown but also neural cell death Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Second Edition ) 2014! Be the dominant fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under conditions! Of aromatic compounds are also common receptors ( nAChRs ) and has the potential of severe. The wastewater and the jth MSA, respectively long chain fatty acids sheath of peripheral have... As shown in Example 2.1 ) days, respectively ( USEPA, 2011 ) the... Abuse–Clinical, brainstem evoked response and magnetic resonance imaging studies 150 lb 2013, worldwide sales toluene. Gasoline mixtures ( benzene⩾xylene⩾toluene ) to increase octane ratings dry soil surfaces expected. Molecular weight of 92.14 g mol−1 which has DEFINATE psychedelic and hallucinatory properties intoxication lasts than! In occupational settings to about 24.5 billion US-dollars many of the pollutant from the stream. Often in a group of fuels that have included in jet fuel surrogate blends in France on chronically... Had high level of toluene from moist soil surfaces based on the moderate vapor....

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